The National Struggle process, which started with the arrival of Mustafa Kemal Pasha in Samsun on May 19, 1919, determined the formation of a new independent state based on national sovereignty. Despite great difficulties and adverse conditions, the First Assembly, which was opened on April 23, 1920, also issued a new constitution and laws on the axis of the Union of Forces due to extraordinary conditions. The First Assembly, which also took the form of the Constituent Assembly of the new state, had a heterogeneous structure. In the First Assembly, which has a very colorful and polyphonic character due to the presence of MPs in different understandings and thoughts, the common goal of MPs was the liberation of the homeland. However, it was seen that there were political groupings among MPs for different reasons in the process. Among these groups in the First Assembly, the discussions between the First Group, in which Mustafa Kemal Pasha was the president, and the Second Group, which came to the fore with its harsh opposition, marked the first period of the First Assembly.
In the study, in this year , when the centenary of the First Assembly was celebrated, as an independent political authority, the historical process was tried to be remembered by mentioning how the Assembly was formed, the groups and discussions in its structure.
Keywords: First Assembly, National Struggle, Constituent Assembly, Political Groups